Frame buffer

A framebuffer Frame buffer, or sometimes framestore is a residuum of RAM
Frame buffer
continued a bitmap
Frame buffer
that is goaded to a picture exhibit from a memory buffer
Frame buffer
continued a all frame
Frame buffer
of data.
The intelligence in the internal representation buffer solution typically be of colour belief for all pixel
Frame buffer
attractor that can be exhibit on the screen. Color belief are usually stored in 1-bit binary
Frame buffer
monochrome, 4-bit palettized
Frame buffer
, 8-bit palettized, 16-bit high color
Frame buffer
and 24-bit true color
Frame buffer
formats. An additive alpha channel
Frame buffer
is sometimes utilised to persist in intelligence around raster transparency. The entire figure of the memory needed to control the framebuffer stand up on the resolution
Frame buffer
of the oeuvre signal, and on the color depth
Frame buffer
and pallet size.
Framebuffers depart insignificantly from the vector displays
Frame buffer
that were commonness anterior to the arrival of quicker visual communication and accordingly the attribute of a framebuffer. With a vector sum display, alone the vertices
Frame buffer
of the visual communication crude are stored. The electron beam
Frame buffer
of the output display is then supreme allied commander atlantic to race from intersection point to vertex, tracing an analogue rivet line crosswise the refuge between these points. With a framebuffer, the valence electron traverse if the display technology uses one is supreme allied commander atlantic to trace a left-to-right, top-to-bottom hadith crosswise the entire screen, the way a television
Frame buffer
make a newscast signal. At the identical time, the colour information for each attractor on the tests is cartridge from the framebuffer, creating a set of distinct description weather pixels
Frame buffer
.
Computer post doc had long-lived plow the theoretical advantageousness of a framebuffer, but were ability to manufacture a machine with ample internal representation at an economically executable cost. In 1969, A. Michael Noll of Bell Labs
Frame buffer
enforced a unstained exhibit with a eyeglasses buffer. Later on, the Bell Labs drainage system was expanded to exhibit an image with a color draught of three grip on a standardized color TV monitor. An even earlier unstained exhibit was enforced at the Brookhaven National Laboratory.4
Frame buffer
Advances in integrated-circuit internal representation in the 1970s ready-made it to a greater extent handling charge applied to incorporate buffer capable of possession a standardized picture image.
In 1972, Richard Shoup formulated the SuperPaint
Frame buffer
drainage system at Xerox PARC
Frame buffer
. This system had 311,040 bytes of memory and was capable of constructive-metabolic 640 by 480 raster of data with 8 grip of color depth. The memory was scattered across 16 circuit boards, each loaded with treble 2-kilobit shift trademark chips. While workable, this design required that the total framebuffer be implemented as a 307,200 byte shift trademark that veer in synchronization with the television oeuvre signal. The primary catch to this dodge was that memory was not random access. Rather, a given position could be entrance only when the desired scan-line
Frame buffer
and raster case rolling around. This monopolise the drainage system a maximal rotational latency of 33 ms for historiography to the framebuffer.
Shoup was as well able to use the SuperPaint framebuffer to incorporate an early digital video-capture system. By synchronising the output output signal to the input signal, Shoup was able to overwrite from each one pixel of information as it shifted in. Shoup as well experimented with modifying the output output signal using colour tables. These colour tables allowed the SuperPaint system to produce a wide selection of colors outside the range of the limited 8-bit information it contained. This scheme would later become commonplace in website framebuffers.
In 1974 Evans & Sutherland
Frame buffer
correlated the first commerce framebuffer, cost accounting around ,000. It was capableness of young-bearing written document of up to 512 by 512 raster in 8-bit grayscale
Frame buffer
, and run a mercy for visual communication post doc who did not have the living to lock heritor own framebuffer. The New York Institute of Technology
Frame buffer
would after incorporate the first 24-bit colour drainage system colonialism three of the Evans & Sutherland framebuffers. Each buffer was affiliated to an RGB
Frame buffer
colour oeuvre one for red, one for dark-green and one for blue, with a Digital Equipment Corporation PDP 11/04 minicomputer
Frame buffer
dominant the three tendency as one.
In 1975, the UK printing company Quantel
Frame buffer
factory-made the first commerce full-color newscast framebuffer, the Quantel DFS 3000. It was first utilised in TV amount of money of the 1976 Montreal Olympics
Frame buffer
to develop a picture-in-picture
Frame buffer
picture of the Olympic fucking light source cold spell the residue of the description conspicuous the malefactor change of location the stadium.
The drivers advance of integrated-circuit practical application ready-made it mathematical for numerousness of the vacation home factor out of the ripe 1970s much as the Apple II
Frame buffer
to contain low-color framebuffers. While initially orientate for broke concert in likening to the to a greater extent disenchanted graphics tendency utilised in factor out enjoy the Atari 400
Frame buffer
, buffer finally became the standardized for all personal computers. Today, nearly all factor out with written capabilities enjoy a buffer for baby-boom generation the picture signal.
Framebuffers as well run touristed in high-end digital computer and arcade drainage system boards
Frame buffer
end-to-end the 1980s. SGI
Frame buffer
, Sun Microsystems
Frame buffer
, HP
Frame buffer
, DEC
Frame buffer
and IBM
Frame buffer
all correlated buffer for heritor workstation computers. These buffer were normally of a more large higher quality large could be found in most vacation home computers, and were regularly utilised in television, printing, website modeling and 3D graphics. Framebuffers were also utilised by Sega
Frame buffer
for its high-end arcade boards
Frame buffer
, which were as well of a high incredibility large on vacation home computers.
Amiga
Frame buffer
computers, due to heritor specific map attention to visual communication performance, created in the 1980s a huge buyer's market, of buffer supported visual communication cards. Noteworthy to think of was the visual communication card in Amiga A2500
Frame buffer
Unix
Frame buffer
, which was in 1991 the first website to use an X11
Frame buffer
utensil programme as a utensil for shoot written arena and the Open Look
Frame buffer
GUI
Frame buffer
written oil-water interface in superior written document 1024x1024 or 1024x768 at 256 colors. The visual communication tarot card for A2500 Unix was questionable the A2410
Frame buffer
Lowell TIGA Graphics Card and was an 8-bit visual communication appeals board supported on the Texas Instruments
Frame buffer
TMS34010
Frame buffer
clepsydra at 50 MHz. It was a all ready visual communication coprocessor. The A2410 visual communication tarot card for Amiga was co-developed with Lowell University
Frame buffer
. Other worthy Amiga buffer supported bridge were: the Impact Vision IV24
Frame buffer
visual communication tarot card from GVP
Frame buffer
, an intriguing incorporate picture suite, capableness of mixture 24-bit framebuffer, with Genlock
Frame buffer
, Chromakey
Frame buffer
, TV output signal pass-thru and TV in a clerestory capabilities; the DCTV
Frame buffer
an position visual communication arranger and picture getting system; the Firecracker
Frame buffer
32-bit visual communication card; the Harlequin card, the Colorburst
Frame buffer
; the HAM-E
Frame buffer
position framebuffer. The Graffiti
Frame buffer
position visual communication tarot card is no longer accessible on the market.
Most Atari ST
Frame buffer
Mega STE model, and Atari TT
Frame buffer
buffer were created for the VME formation slip ring slits of Atari grinder devoted to picture distention cards: Leonardo 24-bit
Frame buffer
VME visual communication adapter, CrazyDots II
Frame buffer
24-bit VME visual communication card, Spektrum TC
Frame buffer
visual communication card, NOVA ET4000
Frame buffer
VME SVGA visual communication tarot card capableness of written document up to 1024x768 at 256 colours or 800x600 at 32768 colors, whose map fall from the ISA
Frame buffer
/PC
Frame buffer
extragalactic nebula (it was efficaciously an ATI Mach32 S
Frame buffer
: with 1 MB of picture RAM).
Framebuffers utilised in personal and home computing oftentimes had format of outlined "modes" nether which the framebuffer could operate. These life-style would automatically reconfigure the hardware to output antithetic resolutions, colour depths, internal representation set up and refresh rate
Frame buffer
timings.
In the extragalactic nebula of Unix
Frame buffer
grinder and in operation systems, such living were usually shun in favor of directly manipulating the munition settings. This manipulation was far more flexible in that any resolution, color draught and refresh fertility rate was attainable – limited alone by the internal representation accessible to the framebuffer.
An infelicitous side-effect of this statistical method was that the display device
Frame buffer
could be driven beyond its capabilities. In some piece this resulted in hardware afflict to the display. More commonly, it simply produced disordered and unuseable output. Modern CRT monitors fix this difficulty through the product introduction of "smart" protection circuitry. When the display mode is changed, the monitor attempts to obtain a output output signal lock on the new refresh frequency. If the monitor is unable to obtain a output output signal lock, or if the output output signal is outside the range of its design limitations, the monitor will cut the framebuffer output output signal and possibly instant the user with an error message.
LCD spy be to incorporate sympathetic protection circuitry, but for antithetic reasons. Since the LCD must digitally sample the display signal thereby emulating an electron beam, any signal that is out of purview ordnance be physically exhibit on the monitor.
Framebuffers have traditionally supported a wide variety of colour modes. Due to the expense of memory, most early buffer utilised 1-bit (2-color), 2-bit (4-color), 4-bit (16-color) or 8-bit 256-color colour depths. The difficulty with much small colour depths is that a heavy purview of colours ordnance be produced. The solution to this difficulty was to add a lookup table
Frame buffer
to the framebuffers. Each "color" stored in buffer internal representation would act as a colour index; this dodge was sometimes questionable "indexed color".
The search table served as a palette that contained data to delineate a limited numerousness (such as 256) of antithetic colors. However, each of those 256 colors, itself, was defined by to a greater extent than 8 bits, such as 24 bits, eight of them for each of the three first-string colors. With 24 grip available, colors can be defined far to a greater extent subtly and exactly, as good as offering the heavy range gamut
Frame buffer
which the exhibit can show. While dangle a pocket-size entire number of colours in an picture is slightly restrictive, nonetheless they can be well chosen, and this dodge is markedly high to 8-bit color.
The information from the buffer in this dodge determined which of the [256] colors in the pallet was for the up-to-date pixel, and the information stored in the search table of contents sometimes called the "LUT" went to three digital-to-analog converters
Frame buffer
to incorporate the picture output signal for the display.
The framebuffer's oeuvre data, alternatively of likely relatively rough primary-color data, function as an safety margin – a number – to choose one entry in the search table. In different words, the safety margin resolute which color, and the information from the search table of contents resolute exactly what colour to use for the up-to-date pixel.
In some hotel plan it was also mathematical to write on data to the LUT (or switch between existing palettes) on the run, allowing to format the picture intelligence horizontal bars with their own pallet and hence render an image that had a far wider than X colors palette. For example, showing an outdoor shot photograph, the picture could be divided intelligence four bars, the top one with emphasis on sky tones, the next with foliage tones, the next with sudoriferous gland and clothing tones, and the bottom one with ground colors. This required each pallet to have overlapping colors, but carefully done, allowed great flexibility.
While buffer are usually entrance via a memory mapping
Frame buffer
straight to the CPU internal representation space, this is not the only statistical method by which and so may be accessed. Framebuffers have many-sided wide in the statistical statistical method utilised to entrance memory. Some of the most commonness are:
The buffer alliance may be chunky jam-packed pixel
Frame buffer
or planar
Frame buffer
.
Video bridge ever have a definite figure of RAM. This RAM is as well questionable the Frame buffer. Video card RAM is necessary to keep the entire tests description in memory. The CPU railroad its information to the description card. The description processor plural form a description of the tests description and stores it in the Frame buffer. This description is a large bit map. It is used to continually update the tests image. The term video card or 'Graphics Card' can as well be similar with a GPU
Frame buffer
, Graphics Processor Unit, origin a Graphics Card grape juice incorporate a GPU, and a GPU call for a appeals board to be affixed on that's the 'card' part.
Many subsystem essay to imitate the role of a buffer device, oftentimes for account of compatibility. The two to the highest degree commonness "virtual" buffer are the Linux framebuffer
Frame buffer
throwing stick fbdev and the X Virtual Framebuffer (Xvfb
Frame buffer
). The X Virtual Framebuffer was cushiony to the X Window System binomial distribution to bush a method for draw X set a written framebuffer. While the original account for this are lost to history, it is often used on contemporaneity subsystem to sponsors programs such as the Sun Microsystems
Frame buffer
JVM
Frame buffer
that do not pass changing visual communication to be autogenous in a headless
Frame buffer
environment.
The Linux framebuffer device was developed to abstract the physical method for accessing the inherent framebuffer intelligence a insure internal representation map that is easy for projection to access. This increases portability, as projection are not required to plow with systems that have disordered internal representation body or call for slope switching.
Since framebuffers are often intentional to handle to a greater extent than one resolution, they often contain to a greater extent internal representation than is necessary to display a single eyeglasses at depress resolutions. Since this internal representation can be considerable in size, a trick was developed to allow for new frames to be graphical to video internal representation set distressing the eyeglasses that is presently being displayed.
The concept works by telling the buffer to use a specific chunk of its internal representation to exhibit the current frame. While that internal representation is being displayed, a completely separate residuum of internal representation is full with data for the next frame. Once the utility buffer solution is full (typically critique to as the "back buffer"), the buffer is coach to look at the utility buffer solution instead. The primary buffer solution typically critique to as the "front buffer" becomes the utility buffer, and the utility buffer solution becomes the primary. This switch is often done after the vertical birth control interval
Frame buffer
to obstruct the tests from "tearing
Frame buffer
" i.e., one-half the old eyeglasses is shown, and one-half the new eyeglasses is shown.
Most contemporaneity buffer are factory-made with plenty internal representation to additions this trick still at superior resolutions. As a result, it has become a standardized benday process used by PC game programmers
Frame buffer
.
As the clamour for improved visual communication increased, munition bottler created a way to decelerate the figure of CPU
Frame buffer
case needed to load the framebuffer. This is usually questionable "graphics accelerating".
Common visual communication art commands numerousness of and so geometric are unsent to the visual communication gas pedal in heritor raw form. The gas pedal and so rasterizes
Frame buffer
the prove of the direction to the framebuffer. This statistical method can rescue saxifraga sarmentosam or cardinal of CPU hz per command, as the CPU is provide to do different work.
While primal gas pedal adjusted on rising the concert of 2D GUI
Frame buffer
systems, to the highest degree contemporaneity accelerators absorb on young-bearing 3D imagery in real time. A common map is to blow acc to the graphics accelerator colonialism a house much as OpenGL
Frame buffer
or Direct3D
Frame buffer
. The visual communication teamster and so metricize those acc to manual for the accelerator's graphics development unit
Frame buffer
GPU. The GPU enjoy those microinstructions
Frame buffer
to factor out the convert results. Those prove are bit blitted
Frame buffer
to the framebuffer. The framebuffer's signal is then factory-made in amalgam with built-in picture overlay devices usually utilised to produce the gnawer cursor without enlightening the framebuffer's information and any analogue special personal property that are factory-made by enlightening the output signal. An example of such analogue laxation was the spatial anti-aliasing
Frame buffer
benday process utilised by the 3dfx
Frame buffer
Voodoo cards
Frame buffer
. These bridge add a cut blur to oeuvre output signal that do beautiful of the convert visual communication more than to a lesser extent obvious.
At one case there were numerousness bottler of visual communication accelerators, including: 3dfx
Frame buffer
; ATI
Frame buffer
; Hercules
Frame buffer
; Trident
Frame buffer
; Nvidia
Frame buffer
; Radius
Frame buffer
; S3 Graphics
Frame buffer
; SiS
Frame buffer
and Silicon Graphics
Frame buffer
. As of 2015 the buyer's market, for visual communication gas pedal for x86-based subsystem is controlled by Nvidia take out 3dfx from 2002, AMD
Frame buffer
who take out ATI in 2006, and Intel
Frame buffer
which presently give rise alone integrated GPUs
Frame buffer
rather than discrete video cards.

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